G.R. No. 118883. January 16, 1998 (Case Brief / Digest)

### Title:
Sangguniang Bayan of San Andres, Catanduanes vs. Court of Appeals and Augusto T. Antonio

### Facts:
The case revolves around Augusto T. Antonio, who resigned his position as a member of the Sangguniang Bayan of San Andres, Catanduanes, after being designated as a temporary member of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan of Catanduanes. This position change led to legal disputes regarding the effectiveness of his resignation and his right to claim his original position and back salaries. The procedural journey began at the RTC of Virac, Catanduanes, which ruled in favor of Antonio, prompting an appeal to the Court of Appeals. The appellate court modified the RTC’s decision by deleting certain awards but maintained Antonio’s right to his original position based on the ineffective resignation and entitlement to continuity in service under the law, despite his later voluntary non-assertion of this office.

### Issues:
1. Whether or not Antonio’s resignation was effectively complete thus terminating his official relationship with the Sangguniang Bayan.
2. Did Antonio totally abandon his ex-officio membership in the Sangguniang Bayan?
3. Is Antonio entitled to salaries similar to what other members of the Sangguniang Bayan received from April 8, 1992, up to the judgment date by the RTC?

### Court’s Decision:
The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the petitioner, reversing the decision of the Court of Appeals. It held that Antonio’s resignation was not effective due to the lack of acceptance by the proper authority. Despite this, the Court found that Antonio had voluntarily abandoned his post in the Sangguniang Bayan by not performing his duties, not collecting salaries, and not objecting to his replacement’s appointment. Such actions demonstrated a clear intention to relinquish the office, which culminated in legal abandonment.

### Doctrine:
A resignation must encompass an intention to relinquish part of the term, an act of relinquishment, and acceptance by the proper authority. Additionally, voluntary abandonment of an office does not require acceptance by any authority but is established through non-performance and a clear indication of intent to relinquish the position.

### Class Notes:
– **Resignation:** Requires intention, act of relinquishment, and acceptance by the proper authority.
– **Abandonment of Office:** Constituted by non-use or non-performance of official duties with a clear intention to abandon, which can be inferred from one’s actions or inactions over time.
– **Effective Resignation:** Not established in the absence of proper acceptance by the designated authority.

### Historical Background:
The intricacies of this case mirror the evolving understanding and legal interpretations surrounding official duties, resignations, and the procedural formalities involving public office positions within the context of Philippine local governance. The disparities between the actions considered resignation versus abandonment highlight the importance of clear legal definitions and actions in governance. The case illustrates the procedural and substantive nuances of resignations and appointments within the local government structure, reflecting on the broader context of governance and public service continuity in the Philippines.


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